English Language Learners in Your Classroom

As the school population of English Language Learners continues increasing rapidly across the United States, classroom teachers from K-12 are confronted with the great challenge of helping them acquire skills in English in addition to teaching them in the content areas. Many teachers do not have the training or knowledge to confront the task, and schools may not have the resources to assist them. This course provides them with the background necessary for meeting the needs of students from different countries and cultures including encouraging intercultural exchanges, information about assessment and the language learning process, cultural awareness, and a wide range of techniques and suggestions for offering a high quality learning experience for ELLs.  The course presents and analyzes the foundations of bilingual education for teachers to be able to understand and incorporate the most relevant aspects in their classrooms. 

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English Language Learners in Your Classroom

Reviews

Check out what other teachers from your area and across the country are saying about this course.

California | New York

California

A little over a month ago, I got a new student that came from Vietnam and does not speak, read or write English. On her first day, I assessed her on the English alphabet letter recognition and sounds. She knew a little over half of the alphabet. I have been scaffolding the lessons in many ways. I arranged for her to spend 20 minutes each morning in the Kindergarten classroom when they are doing their morning alphabet and number routines. I also paired her up with an older student who is relatively new to our school from Vietnam. In the mornings, my student uses Rosetta Stone for 40 minutes. Other ways I have tried to scaffold are pairing her with a capable reader that I can rely on to point to the words of the story as it is read to her. In my lessons I am incorporating more TPR to help her understand and follow along. This class has provided great insight on the many ways that I can accommodate my ELLs and increase their speaking, listening, reading and writing skills. The most useful tool gained from this class is the speaking, listening, reading, and writing checklist that was provided in Lesson 8. I really like how it is organized into function, survival needs, grammar and pronunciation and I find it to be very helpful in assessing individual students and to use as a guideline when planning my ELD lessons. (CA)

New York (ASPDP)

“I liked using visuals aides that’s a tool to present information and ask for students to respond to literature through the use of graphic organizers. 2. I like the reading strategy: before reading give students a brief summary of what the text is about, during reading: skimming for the main idea of each paragraph, and after reading using cloze exercises to summarize parts of text. I have implemented these reading strategies with my ELL students and they have been beneficial to my students. They seem to understand the text better with the brief summary of it which helps them focus on what they are reading. Skimming for the main idea of each paragraph also enables my students to understand what is going on in text as well as keep track of what is occurring in the text. I especially like the use of the cloze exercises as a form of assessment.” (ASPDP, 2015)

“I have chosen to work with one of my own ELL kindergarten students. *Sara* is from Colombia. Although she did attend school in her native country, due to lack of funds in her town, she only attended school twice a week. Therefore, school is a relatively new experience for her. Because I have many native Spanish speakers, I will pair her with a buddy who will help show her “the ropes” around the classroom and the school. In doing this she will be able to communicate in her own language and feel more at ease in the beginning thus, lowering her affective filter. I will be working with her to learn her letters of the alphabet and their sounds. First I will assess her knowledge of this area of study in Spanish to see how much she knows. Using flashcards provided with the letter of the alphabet, a picture associated with the letter, I will begin to introduce her to the alphabet. In doing this I will speak slowly so that she can hear the pronunciation of the letter and the sound it makes. I may ask her to echo me, but will wait a few days to make her feel more comfortable with me and her environment. While we do this daily as a whole class as review, with Sara I feel it is best right now to sit with her individually so as not to pressure her. I can also sit her with her native language buddy and they can teach her as I feel that sometimes children learn best from their peers. I will also use a similar activity when it comes to learning the numbers in English. First of course, assessing her mastery of the skill in Spanish. Given that Sara is an ELL student, she will be assessed using the Lab-R Language test which is given to each ELL student in English in order to determine their qualification for ESL services and at what level (Intermediate, Beginner, Advanced). The results of this test can also help me determine her areas of weakness and strength and I can use this to drive my instruction. In terms of teaching Sara, some of the scaffolding strategies I will employ is definitely the use of visuals and manipulatives as well as charts and graphic organizers. I feel that it is important to begin a learning contract with her to help her to take responsibility of her learning, but also to help her to see her progression and this will help her to feel accomplished, motivated and will encourage her to continue towards mastery of skills in all content areas. Working together with her other teachers; science, social studies, music, they too can create contracts for her to help her along and help her work towards her full potential. I have already met with Sara’s parents. At our meeting I have encouraged and provided the use of flashcards with letters of the alphabet as well as numbers. Sitting with her parents I have reviewed with them in the same manner how it is I teach Sara the letters using, letter, picture, sound. They have practiced with me and are going to review the letters daily in the same manner. Also, we have done the same with the numbers 1-10 working our way to 20 For math homework I have provided Sara a math workbook that is written in Spanish and one in English (fortunately my school had enough of both). We are having her complete her homework currently in Spanish which helps mom and dad read the directions and also help her at home. Slowly we will towards using the English language book using the Spanish book as reference. Mom and Dad have also been given online websites that will help Sara learn sight words, read books, learn letters, sounds and numbers through fun activities. I have recommended Starfalls.com and RazKids. RazKids is especially useful because I can monitor her progress and assign her books to read and comprehension activities. On this sight the books can be read to her which allows her to listen, process the information and provides her with visuals. She can then practice reading along. As she makes progress, I can change her reading level. This sight also helps Mom and Dad who are not fluent in English become more fluent while helping their daughter learn. I will be meeting with her parents monthly or as needed to provide them with additional resources as well as updates on her progress. Welcoming Sara into class, with my help she introduced herself and told the class where she was from and I showed them on the map where Colombia was located. She told us two favorite things; Food, and color. I will be incorporating more cultural awareness activities as the year progresses during art on Fridays and in relation to holiday celebrations. Most useful for me in this course was learning different ways to use creative arts for language acquisition. Being a kindergarten teacher, I am constantly trying to find new ways to keep my lessons short but meaningful because my students can only sit for so long. I cannot teach them what they need to learn just having them sit at their desk and listen. The many ideas offered to me in this section, provided me with many ideas of different, fun, ways to teach while also lowering my ELL students active filter. I also enjoyed the lesson on emotional factors as it provided insight into how these children feel and also helps to make me more aware of how to be sensitive to their needs as well as how to sensitize my EO students to their feelings.” (ASPDP, 2015)

“Great balance between quizzes, journals and forum posts.” (ASPDP, 2015)

“One scaffolding strategy that I will use with reading is the Frayer Model to clarify historical concepts and activate prior knowledge before reading unfamiliar text. The student is instructed to create a four square graphic organizer with the key concept word in the middle. One box is for the definition, one is for characteristics, another is for examples and the last is for non-examples. Words, letters or symbols can be used for each of the boxes. This becomes a great reference point for before, during or after reading activities. Students can build vocabulary that is context based. I believe that this course has given me a foundation in understanding and instructing ELLs. Learning the background information about my ELL students will be very helpful in designing lessons with scaffolding activities to ensure success. Reading about Bilingual education and how literacy developed in the primary language transfers to the second language will be helpful in the future. Perhaps the most important information learned was the Five stages of language Acquisition. This will enable me to help my ELL students set and achieve goals. One strategy that I will use will be designing TPR activities. Lowering a student’s affective filter is essential and something I have actively integrated. I feel more comfortable and competent at working with my ELLs after taking this course.” (ASPDP, 2015)

“Very informative with ideas and resources that can be put to immediate use.” (ASPDP, 2015)

“I have an ELL student in class who is at a very low level. He barely speaks any English. However he is literate in his first language, which enables him to read and write English without any difficulty, although he doesn’t understand anything he is reading. To help this student, I often model every task and scaffold all his documents. The modeling helps because it enables him to understand how to conduct as task whether it is wrong or right. Scaffolding helps this student because it simplifies his task. I highlight key points, which he focuses on. I also define key vocabulary words to build his vocabulary. In addition, to scaffolding his reading or writing piece, I also scaffold the listening and speaking part by saying very simple phrases slowly. This students learning contract is the same as the other students, although the overall product will be at a much lower level and will be graded on a curve. This course covered a lot of information but one thing that I really found useful was the five stages of learning. This helped me classify my students and understand where they are. In addition, it provided great suggestions that i can use to help all of my students at once in a single lesson, without worrying about whether the lesson was too easy or difficult for some students.” (ASPDP, 2015)

“I am choosing one of my own students who is an ELL. Since my school uses TCRWP, I would use these assessments to assess the student’s reading and writing knowledge. I would test the student on their sight words, letter/sound recognition, ability to read/comprehend a text, and their writing skills. I would have the student provide a writing sample. If the student prefers, they can write it in their home language and I would have it translated. I would also like if possible, to have the student write a sample in English the best. When creating a learning contract with the student, I would openly discuss with the student the different types of goals that they should be working on. I would explain that they need to have grammatical focus goals, vocabulary goals, and independent reading goals. We could create these based on the thematic units in reading and writing. In addition, additional support could be provided by using the Wilson Fundations program. There were many scaffolding strategies that I would use in the classroom. The pre-reading strategies such as KWL charts and guiding questions to activate schema are very beneficial for students. Since students may not be familiar with the text, it is important to prompt and discuss any knowledge that they may have, but not realize it. In addition, a KWL chart allows a student to focus on what they know (or don’t know) and create reading focus questions independently since they are reading to find the answer to a particular wondering that they are having. I learned a lot of valuable information in this course. One of the most important takeaways is the importance of getting to know the cultural backgrounds of my students. Every student has “a story” and it is important that these are shared not only with the teacher, but with the other students as well. I liked the activities suggested in the course such as having students put a post-it on the country they are from on an enlarged map and having students explain where they are from. In addition, I think it is important to allow parents to get involved in these types of activities as well. I like how many suggestions were made about how to involve parents. The diversity of the students and families in our classroom need to be more celebrated. I do not want students to feel like they have to hide their identities. In fact, I want the opposite. I want students to see how it is important to learn about different cultures, traditions, and celebrations. This course truly emphasized the importance of community building with ELL’s and keeping teaching culturally-relevant.” (ASPDP, 2015)

“I have found the 5 Stages of Language Acquisition to be extremely helpful in my class with my ELLs. I have created checklists with behaviors from each level to assist me during my formal and informal observations. This data has helped me identify my ELLs’ levels, and also helped me to plan appropriate, yet challenging activities.” (ASPDP, 2015)
“My Ell students are more advanced and for math class they might only have one word that can cause a misunderstanding of a problem so one of the scaffolding strategies I will use is to give the student a language to english dictionary in case they see one word that they do not understand. As the year goes on or even as a unit goes on I will take the dictionary away as the student learns the important words for that unit. 2. This course was very interesting to me because I admittedly do not know a lot about different cultures and have not had any experience really working with ELL students before I got my job working in the NYC DOE. I think that the strategies in this class were very helpful to learn but that I did know most of them already. The biggest benefit of this class to me is that it helped me to look at my class in a different way. In a math class I usually do not incorporate multicultural ideas and after trying some of these activities I was able to see how much they can help. I also think this class really made me think more about assessment and what ways are effective in assessing ELL students. I know that assessment is a very important part of education but it can be very hard to assess ELLS accurately. This class definitely helped me to think about ways of assessing.” (ASPDP, 2015)

“One good scaffolding lesson in reading I used is to read the paragraph first then have my ELLs read a similar paragraph. This exercise would follow with reading a book at their level. Having done the course I have found it to be very informative and and interesting. There are lots of ideas that I plan to use in my class for example making my ELLs comfortable before trying to teach them the language, and having pictures of the different countries in my class. Getting parent and community involved is another idea that I found have interesting, there are many ways to do this and I have designed a few of my own these I will be using in my class room. Overall I have found the course to be good and informative. Very! (ASPDP, 2015)

“From the “Meet Three Recent Immigrants” site I chose Taylor from South Korea, age 11, born in Australia but currently lives in Atlanta Georgia, with his three brothers and mother. His cousins and father live in South Korea. I would do a themed assessment around the topic of family Holidays. For instance in America we have Mother’s and Father’s day, I thought it would be interesting to have Taylor work on bringing over Children’s Day to America from Korea. He would have to write a short letter to Atlanta Georgia’s Congress man on Children’s Day. But in order to do that, he would have to do research on the history of Children’s Day in Korea and how it came about. He would need to provide research links of articles he found online in both Korean and English. He would also have write a persuasive short text to a political figure, therefore exercising a political a civic right of citizens. Because Taylor likes Social Studies and he mentioned one of his favorite holidays in South Korea is children’s day. I felt the best way to engage his interest is to focus on something close to home. I would introduce the importance civic participation –which is great for immigrants in the United States to now. Writing to politicians, a newspaper, and voting are three forms of civic actions citizens can take to voice their opinions. This is the first introduction. However, non-citizens are not able to vote, but they are able to write to newspapers and their local representative—-either to comment on a Policy change or because they are fighting for a cause; such as a street light or a holiday. This would then lead into finding something he would be interested in writing about. Because one important day he missed in South Korea was Children’s Day, and because we have Mother and Father’s Day. Would he be interested in writing a letter to his representative about having a Children’s Day as a State Holiday—or even lower level advocating to the Board of Education in Atlanta or city Mayor about having a Children’s Day. We would discuss effective and ineffective writing. This would be scaffolded reading strategy by showing comments to a short online article. Students would be able to see effective writing is polite, has supporting evidence, and shares a clear point of view. While an ineffective writing may have impolite words, yelling, or doesn’t relate to the topic. Now once you he understands points of ineffective and effective writing. It segues into persuasive writing. Persuasive writing where you try to get another person to share your point of view. However, also point out that being persuasive isn’t only in writing. Advertisements have persuasive themes. They try to get you to buy a product. I feel starting off with images and understanding that concept through commercials, advertisements is best. Then lead into persuasive writing. When you being persuasive writing you need to present all the important reasons why it would be best to have one and why it is important for families and for the city. In order to do that, you also need to do research in order to develop your argument. Advertisers and marketers do research on their product and on the people they are selling to. Since Children’s day is in South Korea, it is best to do research on why people enjoy Children’s day and why it was created. This leads into point of view topic. He could use primary resources from South Korea (he would need to present those texts) in order to complete his research. Then he would look at format in writing a formal letter. An exemplar or mentor text would be provided of a good formal letter and what is required. He would need to present a first draft with his research. Then a second draft after obtaining advice from a peer presentation. Each student would have one text they are writing to their representative on an issue. Because of the density of this lesson and the immense amount of skill sets the students would be learning; there are many avenues of assessment. This would be a massive unit/project based work, therefore Learning contracts would be imperative. I think they would also double as conference/advisement updates. Because of so many aspects in the Learning students would be monitored in all areas and skills aligned with the standards. Teachers would have to help the student identify areas in the standards that best fit the weaknesses or obstacles the student faced in the process and then establish a criteria, or provide students with a new set of skills in order to overcome the proposed obstacle. I think this also great to put in a project binder so students can see what areas were a problem and they were able to improve or succeed in. This course was phenomenal. I liked Lesson 4 and 5 the most talking about the various methodologies and levels of language acquisition. Not to mention, the Collectivist vs. Individualist societies. I think this hit home for me the most because I actually am a model of the duality of those two systems in an adult as I was raised in America, but born elsewhere. The cultural meshing is difficult to understand for older students than younger ones I think. I liked the Méthodologies of Learning because all of them have something important to provide in teaching kids today. And it shows there is no real wrong way to teach ELL’s, all ELL’s are different from each other. Therefore, we should be able to provide something to all those children have scaffolded lessons, differentiated work and/or recognition and validity. I definitely plan on using the Cummin’s Framework, I think that can guide to building effective assessment Platform and even differentiated work for students. I like the different strategies like suggestopedia where students can take up roles or music is played in the classroom. The use of Learning Contracts is great, not only for assessment but also rewarding growth. I liked the emphasis on multiculturalism in the lesson and the arts. I have actually decided to make every Friday to be spoken word and theater day. So students can have a friendly and fun Platform to express themselves. I liked the suggestions on bringing multiculturalism and I plan on trying to implement at least 3/5ths of my course time to incorporating that field through content.” (ASPDP, 2015)

“I am going to use the UDL approach when planning lessons. I will use topics that interest them and topics that connect to their lives that make it more meaningful to them. I will incorporate their culture into lessons and I will ask students to compare and contrast how our cultures are different. For math I was thinking of students to bring in an easy recipe and we will follow recipe. Students will have to measure, and read directions. I will also translate more vocabulary and concepts in other languages, model and use visual/gestures. I learned a lot from this class and happy I was able to take it. I learned new ways to incorporate student’s cultures into my classroom and new ways to breakdown information to present to my ELL students.” (ASPDP, 2015)

“I chose to write about “Gabriella” from Mexico. My plan would be to integrate her into the curriculum by joining her with someone of her background who knows Spanish and is further along in progressing in English. This will not only make her more comfortable but allow her to meet friends. Based on what I learned in this course I would allow her to use her native tongue during assessment situations because she feels most comfortable that way. I will use her native tongue to scaffold my lessons, using Spanish translations where appropriate. My goal would be to access her prior knowledge to help her gain new knowledge in English. In this course I have learned a lot from a cultural aspect that I can bring with me to the classroom. I learned how students from all over the world have learned in different types of settings which affects how they perform in my classroom. Whether students are from a collectivist or individualist society has a major impact. I have also learned strategies to better access where an ELL is in relation to others, the individual needs they have, and how to better meet them. This is based on the BICS or CALP and the five stages of language acquisition. All of the things I learned I will use them in my social studies classroom when I make scaffolding decisions, or prepare materials. It is important for me to consider this new information and be informed of the students’ differences so I can make better decisions in my discipline and reach students more readily.” (ASPDP, 2013)

“The student I will use for this example is a 4th grade beginner ELL (Lindsay.) The assessment that has been used was the LAB-R (Language Assessment Battery –Revised). This assessment was given to her within the first 10 days that she was enrolled in school. Lindsay is a native Spanish speaker. This test is given to students in English to determine if they are ESL eligible. If the student does not pass the LAB-R and they are deemed ELLs they are then given the test in Spanish to determine their literacy level in the native language (if Spanish.) Once ESL services have begun I will test them every spring with the NYSESLAT (New York State ESL Achievement test.) I try to meet Lindsay’s affective needs by lowering her anxiety. I try to provide a welcoming classroom and thoroughly explain everything in simple ways so that she is not overwhelmed or more confused. I also try to buddy Lindsay up with someone else who speaks her language. In an effort to meet her academic needs I provide many scaffolding strategies. The one I rely on the most is activating prior knowledge which can be carried into all modes –listen, speak, read and write. Modeling is also a scaffolding strategy that works as I can demonstrate learning through a “think aloud” talk. Teaching key vocabulary words and providing visuals are also important parts of scaffolding. This course did provide a lot of information. I particularly liked lesson two. This was helpful to me because it focused on being more culturally aware and also including parents and the community in the student’s success. I think this is an important lesson to remember as students can sense your feelings towards them or their culture. They know if you’re interested or not. While all of the research and learning strategies are important, it is just as imperative that we are multicultural and respect everyone’s culture and differences. This is why I found this lesson so helpful.” (ASPDP, 2013)

“After receiving the information from the Lab-R assessment my student “Sara” is considered an Advanced ELL. She has difficulty with grammar and sentence structure. She seems to be fluent in conversational English and has a good understanding of what is occurring around her. I have designed some scaffolding lessons and modifications that involve Sara writing about books she has read and class films we have watched. I always give her a model sentence to work off of and still give her some sentence stems to work from as well. I have encourages Sara to write poems based of a particular author and to work with the rhyme scheme the poet uses. Sara has shared her work in from of the class and works well with partners. All these different methods of differentiating and scaffolding of Sara’s work have also benefited many other students in my class as well. One of the best things I have learned from this course is the Language Acquisition steps and strategies as well as the different types of scaffolding strategies that I can incorporate into my lessons to help my ELLs and my lower readers and writers. The action plan for my ELLs was also very informative. One of the things I do not always think about is how well the student was able to learn in their native language, is there any learning disabilities I need to understand with the students so I can approach their learning of English in the best way, and incorporating their parents and native customs into my lessons and classroom.” (ASPDP, 2014)

“The course was informative, useful and it was convenient and interesting!” (ASPDP, 2015)

“As a teacher in NYC I have many ELL students in my class each year. I am always looking for new and useful strategies to help my students succeeded. This class has helped me to discover new strategies that I will definitely implement in my classroom. One scaffolding technique that I will continue to use with my students is to allow them to listen to books on tape. I teach Kindergarten so it is so important for these students to be exposed to different types of literature and be able to just listen to how the language is spoken. I want my students to enjoy reading and listening to stories and not become frustrated. I will also pair students with another that speaks their language. This will help the students to feel more comfortable and confident. I found the 5 levels of language Acquisition very useful. I definitely plan on using this to determine exactly which level my students are on and what they should be doing. I will be able to differentiate my learning and create meaningful activities. I also realize how important it is to get the parents involved. There are so many great ways to have them visit the classroom and be involved in their child’s education. I love the idea of using non-verbal activities to lower the student’s academic filter. This class has been very useful and it is exactly what I was looking for to help my ELL students. I feel much more confident to begin this upcoming school year with my new ELL students.” (ASPDP, 2014)

“I’d like to start this post with all of the wonderful things I learned from taking this course. This class was very helpful and included a lot of applicable information that I can use in my classroom. One of the first things I have to comment on is the information I learned about cultures and regions around the world. It emphasized the importance of learning about the cultures of the students in your classroom, especially if we want to lower the effective filter and to make them feel comfortable and welcomed into the classroom. Parental involvement is extremely important in supporting students. They will definitely feel better about taking part in the classroom community if they know that the teacher has a positive relationship with their parents/guardians and respects their culture. I found all of the ideas and readings to be very helpful. It was interesting to learn about how students best learn English. The reading the stages of language acquisition was something I had mentioned I wanted to learn more about in the beginning of this class and it ended up being really helpful to my learning because it showed be what I should be expecting of my students at points throughout the year. I learned that the use of music and drama to help my students understand different lessons is a great strategy to use with ELLs. I also love the idea of performing different books that we have read, either in a reader’s theater or a mini-skit. I think these are great practices not only for my ELLs but for all of my first grade students. As a lead teacher who supports other teachers in instruction I will make sure to suggest many of these ideas to teachers of ELL students and teachers in k-2 classrooms. All in all this class was extremely helpful in my instruction and future instruction of English Language Learners. Below is the plan I created for one of the English Language Learners in my classroom that incorporates some of the important learning strategies gained from taking this class. I will create a plan for is a six year old boy in my class, named Armando. Armando comes from a Spanish speaking family and is able to speak English but at times confuses English and Spanish when he is speaking, reading and writing. To assess his knowledge in English, I will administer the NYSESLAT, the New York State English as a Second Language Achievement Test. The Language Assessment Battery-Revised (LAB-R) was also administered in the Spanish to decide if Armando would be classified as an ELL or not. When working with Armando it is very useful to use visuals. He also tends to confuse the sounds of the letters in English and Spanish. Armando is not able to read many things that are written on charts and signs around the classroom, therefore it is extremely important to include lots of pictures and visuals. It is also helpful to show him an example of what a finished product should look like before he starts an assignment so he has a better idea of what he is expected to do and will try harder to stay on task. Armando’s strength is in Math, but I find that allowing him to use manipulatives for all activities is still beneficial. To meet his needs, I will be sure to give him constant compliments about his progress. I will also make sure he has all the supports he needs in the classroom so he does not feel uncomfortable when he does not understand something. I will also create a learning contract with Armando-in the area of listening, we will agree that he will listen to a read-aloud and proceed to answer questions about the main idea, characters, problem and solution. He will also work in the listening center by listening to stories and then responding to them by drawing his favorite part in his journal. As a scaffold, Armando will be given an index card with a big picture cue of a boy listening attentively with an arrow pointing to the boy’s ear. In the area of speaking, Armando will raise his hand and participate one time in each subject (Reading, Writing, Math) every day. As a scaffold, he will also be permitted to talk to a partner in place of raising his hand and speaking to the class as a whole. In the area of reading, Armando will be expected to read for 20 minutes every day (ten minutes independently and ten minutes with a partner). He is reading on a level D and will be expected to be reading at a level E in one month. Armando will use different strategies to help him read, such as checking the picture, looking across the word to find word parts, and thinking what makes sense in the story. As a scaffold, Armando will be given a goal card with these reading tools on it. The tools will be supported with pictures so they are useful reminders that he can look to quickly and remember what to do. This will remind him that when he comes to a hard word, there is something he can do to help him figure it out. In writing, Armando will write for 20 minutes each day. He will know the order in which his writing should be completed (planning, sketching, labeling, and sentences). Armando will try his best to hear all the sounds in a word when labeling. As a scaffold, he will have access to the Word Wall in the room, as well as a personal visual word wall, to help him write his sight words and frequently used words.” (ASPDP, 2013)

“This was a great class that gave me many new ideas and strategies that I will use with my ELL students.” (ASPDP, 2015)

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